Forensic DNA laboratory
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid which is a hereditary material present in every cell of human body. The DNA found in one cell of a person is the exact copy of DNA found in all other cells of the same person but different from DNA of any other person existing in general. Forensic DNA analysis may link suspect or victim to the evidence sample and subsequently assisting in the flow of investigation. Thus, taking advantage of this unique natural property of DNA, the profiles generated from evidence sample are compared to the DNA from reference sample/scene of crime samples.
At NFSA, the DNA laboratory was established in 2006 with the assistance and cooperation of the People’s Republic of China. Since then, the DNA laboratory is providing forensic services in the following type of cases:
- Dead body identificationIn Dead Body Identification, the samples usually bone, nail and/or teeth from unknown deceased are compared with reference blood samples of claimant parents or offsprings to ascertain the legitimacy of relation.
- Mass Disaster Victim Identification
- In mass disaster situations e.g. air crash, oil tanker fire, earthquake etc. it is sometimes difficult to visually identify the cadavers even by the relatives of the subjects. In such a situations, suitable samples from body parts are taken and compared with the reference blood samples of claimant parents/offsprings.
- Parentage analysis
- In cases involving disputed paternity, the blood sample/buccal swab is taken from disputed child and compared with the blood samples of alleged/claimant parents to determine the legitimacy of relation.
- Sexual assault
- In offences involving sexual assault, High Vaginal Swabs/ Perianal swabs, Anal swabs etc. are compared with the reference blood samples of victim and accused to know about any coitus, if happened. Additional samples such as bed sheet, victim clothings/undergarments, bite-mark swabs, condom etc. may also be used to cross link the accused with the victim and crime scene.
- DNA Cross-Matching
- In DNA cross matching, any potential biological evidence collected from place of occurrence may be compared with the reference blood sample of victim or suspect to ascertain the presence of victim/suspect at place of occurrence and probable involvement in that particular offence.
- DNA profiling
- In cases of suicide attacks, the suitable biological samples of suicide attacker are taken and DNA profile of the same is generated for future reference.