The science to investigate, extract, analyse and report the findings of digital evidence is known as Digital Forensics.
The digital forensic is a sub-category of forensic science and in coming years it will be imperative to collect digital evidence to investigate a crime scene.
The digital devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets are an essential part of our life, and we control our virtual life though these devices. Information these devices generate can be potential evidence in investigation and help solve complex criminal cases.
The different categories of Digital Forensics are appended for reference:
- Computer Forensics
- Audio and Video Forensics
- Mobile Forensics
Forensic Narcotics covers illegal drugs that cause addiction, habituation and make change in perceptions. Forensic drug chemists analyse unknown materials including powders, liquids, stains, illicit pills and plants material or residues (leaves & mushrooms) to determine the chemical identity or characteristics of compounds that make up the sample.
The analysis of controlled substances employs a multiple testing protocol with presumptive tests followed by confirmatory tests.
Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. Forensic toxicology takes it a step further by encompassing the measurement of alcohol, drugs and other toxic substances in biological specimens and interpretation of such results in a medico legal context. The purpose of forensic toxicology is to establish and enhance voluntary standards for the practice of forensic toxicology and for the examination and recognition of scientists and laboratories providing forensic toxicology services.
Conventionally, the term ‘Serology’ referred to the non-cellular part of the blood, hence serology calls out analyzing blood in mind whenever the term is used; but in addition to blood evidence, Forensic Serologist also conducts chemical examinations of other body fluids e.g. semen and saliva.
Biological fluids are unbiased, candid and honest enough to tell and testify the events occurred at crime scene. Serology allows the forensic scientists to segregate these body fluids when found at the crime scene and then perform predefined tests on these fluids in order to identify that to whom these fluids belong. One important aspect of serology is to determine whether a stain found at crime scene and resembling blood is actually blood or not.
Detection, identification and characterization of stains under question involves series of Preliminary and Confirmatory tests. Application of these tests in a set eradicates false negatives and false positives, and the chance factor.